الجمعة، 30 يناير، 2015

The Protection of Information in Computer Systems

Some Terms In Computer Security

Access
The ability to make use of information stored in a computer system. Used frequently as a verb, to the horror of grammarians.
Access control list
A list of principals that are authorized to have access to some object.
Authenticate
To verify the identity of a person (or other agent external to the protection system) making a request.
Authorize
To grant a principal access to certain information.
Capability
In a computer system, an unforgeable ticket, which when presented can be taken as incontestable proof that the presenter is authorized to have access to the object named in the ticket.
Certify
To check the accuracy, correctness, and completeness of a security or protection mechanism.
Complete isolation
A protection system that separates principals into compartments between which no flow of information or control is possible.
Confinement
Allowing a borrowed program to have access to data, while ensuring that the program cannot release the information.
Descriptor
A protected value which is (or leads to) the physical address of some protected object.
Discretionary
(In contrast with nondiscretionary.) Controls on access to an object that may be changed by the creator of the object.
Domain
The set of objects that currently may be directly accessed by a principal.
Encipherment
The (usually) reversible scrambling of data according to a secret transformation key, so as to make it safe for transmission or storage in a physically unprotected environment.
Grant
To authorize (q. v.).
Hierarchical control
Referring to ability to change authorization, a scheme in which the record of each authorization is controlled by another authorization, resulting in a hierarchical tree of authorizations.
List-oriented
Used to describe a protection system in which each protected object has a list of authorized principals.
Password
A secret character string used to authenticate the claimed identity of an individual.
Permission
A particular form of allowed access, e.g., permission to READ as contrasted with permission to WRITE.
Prescript
A rule that must be followed before access to an object is permitted, thereby introducing an opportunity for human judgment about the need for access, so that abuse of the access is discouraged.
Principal
The entity in a computer system to which authorizations are granted; thus the unit of accountability in a computer system.
Privacy
The ability of an individual (or organization) to decide whether, when, and to whom personal (or organizational) information is released.
Propagation
When a principal, having been authorized access to some object, in turn authorizes access to another principal.
Protected object
A data structure whose existence is known, but whose internal organization is not accessible, except by invoking the protected subsystem (q.v.) that manages it.
Protected subsystem
A collection of procedures and data objects that is encapsulated in a domain of its own so that the internal structure of a data object is accessible only to the procedures of the protected subsystem and the procedures may be called only at designated domain entry points.
Protection
1) Security (q.v.).
2) Used more narrowly to denote mechanisms and techniques that control the access of executing programs to stored information.
Protection group
A principal that may be used by several different individuals.
Revoke
To take away previously authorized access from some principal.
Security
With respect to information processing systems, used to denote mechanisms and techniques that control who may use or modify the computer or the information stored in it.
Self control
Referring to ability to change authorization, a scheme in which each authorization contains within it the specification of which principals may change it.
Ticket-oriented
Used to describe a protection system in which each principal maintains a list of unforgeable bit patterns, called tickets, one for each object the principal is authorized to have access.
User
Used imprecisely to refer to the individual who is accountable for some identifiable set of activities in a computer system.


الدرس (2) - تحليل وتصميم وبناء أنظمة قواعد البيانات باستخدام SQL Server

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم


تحليل وتصميم وبناء أنظمة قواعد البيانات باستخدام

2012 SQL Server



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Syllabus:

SQL Server Management Studio
Connecting to a SQL Server instance
The windows of SQL Server Management Studio
Query Editor
Object Explorer
Registered Servers
Properties Window
Templates window

Intellisense & Error List windows
Database Engine Query Editor Regions
Query Editor Toolbars
The SQL Editor Toolbar
The Text Editor toolbar
Filtering objects within the object explorer
Object Explorer Details Window
Object Search


Detach a SQL Server database using SSMS & T-SQL
Attach a SQL Server database using SSMS & T-SQL
Scripting a database
Install Sample DataBases
Install Adventure Works 2012 Database
Install Northwind Database